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In modern manufacturing, there has been strong renewed interest in high-efficiency machining, while use of advanced materials has increased due to their special mechanical and physical properties. Advanced materials have replaced conventional materials in various fields of application including aeronautical, aerospace, automotive, biomechanical, and mechanical, Infrastructure and other industries. As a result of these properties and potential applications, there exists an urgent need to understand questions associated with the machinability of these materials.

Machining is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. The many processes that have this common theme, controlled material removal, are today collectively known as subtractive manufacturing, in distinction from processes of controlled material addition, which are known as additive manufacturing.

Machining covers several processes, which we usually divide into the following categories:

  • Cutting, generally involving single-point or multipoint cutting tools, each with a clearly defined geometry.
  • Abrasive processes, such as grinding.
  • Nontraditional machining processes, utilizing electrical, chemical, and optimal sources of energy.
  • The precise meaning of the term “machining” has evolved over the past two centuries as technology has advanced. During the Machine Age, it referred to (what we today might call) the “traditional” machining processes, such as turning, boring, drilling, milling, broaching, sawing, shaping, planningl, reaming, and tapping.In these “traditional” or “conventional” machining processes, machine tools, such as lathes, milling machines, drill presses, or others, are used with a sharp cutting tool to remove material to achieve a desired geometry. Since the advent of new technologies such as electrical discharge machining, electrochemical machining, electron beam machining, photochemical machining, and ultrasonic machining, the retronym conventional machining” can be used to differentiate those classic technologies from the newer ones. In current usage, the term “machining” without qualification usually implies the traditional machining processes.